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Pathways packs are customized for you using the highest quality Health Canada approved natural health products from our headquarters in Vancouver, BC.

Our Products

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Pathways products include the highest quality vitamins, minerals, omega oils, extracts, and supplements curated by our team. All products are licensed by Health Canada and manufactured according to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).

To learn more about our products and their medical ingredients, click on any of the icons below. If you don't see a product you are looking for, please contact us, and we'll try to find it for you.

Vitamins

Biotin 500mcg
Biotin
Flush-Free Niacin 600mg
Flush-Free Niacin
Men's Multivitamin
Men's Multivitamin
Vitamin B12 1000mcg Chewable
Vitamin B12
Vitamin B2
Vitamin B2
Vitamin B50 Complex
Vitamin B50 Complex
Vitamin B6 50mg
Vitamin B6
Vitamin C 1000mg
Vitamin C
Vitamin D 1000IU Softgel
Vitamin D
Women's Multivitamin
Women's Multivitamin

Omega Oils

Omega 3 180 EPA / 120 DHA
Omega 3
Ultra Omega-3 500 EPA / 250 DHA
Ultra Omega-3

Extracts

Cranberry Extract w/ Uva-Ursi & Grape Seed
Cranberry Extract
Garlic Extract 50mg
Garlic Extract
Ginger Root 550mg
Ginger Root
Green Tea Extract 400mg
Green Tea Extract
Oregano 450mg
Oregano
Silymarin Extract 150mg
Silymarin Extract

Supplements

Arginine & Citrulline
Arginine & Citrulline
Coenzyme Q10 100mg w/ Vitamin E
Coenzyme Q10
Ginkgo Biloba 60mg
Ginkgo Biloba
Glucosamine & Chondroitin 750mg / 600mg
Glucosamine & Chondroitin
L-Carnitine 500mg
L-Carnitine
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 600mg
N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

Minerals

Calcium Citrate 300mg
Calcium Citrate
Iron 18mg
Iron
Magnesium 200mg
Magnesium
Zinc 50mg
Zinc

Arginine & Citrulline

About

L-Arginine is a non-essential amino acid that is involved in protein synthesis and L-Citrulline is one of the three dietary amino acids in the urea cycle.

✧ May help support a modest improvement in exercise capacity in individuals with stable cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Risk Information: If you suffer from cardiovascular disease, consult your health care practitioner for use beyond 6 weeks. Consult a health care practitioner for use beyond 6 months. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, if your cardiovascular condition worsens, if you have a renal/kidney disease or if you are following a low protein diet. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you suffer from a cardiovascular disease and are attempting an increase in physical activity. Consult your health care practitioner prior to use if you are taking medication for cardiovascular diseases, erectile dysfunction, and/or blood thinners. Ensure to drink enough fluid before, during, and after exercise.

Dietary

Arginine food sources include both plant and animal products that are rich in protein. Animal sources comprise dairy products, beef, pork, gelatine, poultry, wild game and seafood. Plant sources of Arginine are grains, wheat germ and flour, lupins (also available as flakes) buckwheat, granola, oatmeal, peanuts, nuts, seeds, chickpeas and cooked soybeans.

Research

We are currently compiling research on this product, please check back later.

For more information on dietary supplements, we recommend visiting http://www.mayoclinic.org/

Pathways Arginine & Citrulline

This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80072002.

Pathways’ Arginine & Citrulline is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

 Ingredients Amount
Arginine 500mg
Citrulline 250mg

Non-Medicinal Ingredients: VCap (Hypromellose, Water), Silica, Stearic Acid (Vegetable Source), Magnesium Stearate (Vegetable Source), and Cellulose.


Biotin

About

Biotin is a water-soluble B-vitamin (vitamin B7)  and plays an important role in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids. Biotin also assists in various metabolic reactions involving the transfer of carbon dioxide.

✧ A factor in the maintenance of good health

✧ Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

✧ Helps the body to metabolize fats

✧ Helps the body to metabolize proteins

✧ Helps to prevent biotin deficiency

Dietary

Few data exist on the biotin content of foods, and it is not included in most nutrient databases (e.g. the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard References) although it is found in varying amounts in most natural foods. Liver contains high concentrations (about 100 mcg/100g), compared to low quantities (about 1 mcg/g) in fruit and most meats.

Research

We are currently compiling research on this product, please check back later. 

For more information on dietary supplements, we recommend visiting http://www.mayoclinic.org/

Pathways Biotin

This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80071559.

Pathways’ Biotin is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

 Ingredients
Amount Per Serving
Biotin 500mg

Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Rice Flour, Capsule (Gelatin), Magnesium Stearate, Silica.


Calcium Citrate

About Calcium

Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, and is available as a dietary supplement. Calcium is an alkaline earth metal and one of the most abundant elements found in Earth's crust. 

Calcium is a factor in the maintenance of good health. 

✧ Adequate calcium (and vitamin D) (throughout life) as part of a healthy diet, (along with physical activity) may help prevent bone loss/osteoporosis (in peri- and postmenopausal women) (in later life).

✧ Helps in the development and maintenance of bones and teeth especially in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood.

✧ Adequate calcium (and vitamin D) (throughout life) as part of a healthy diet, (along with physical activity) may reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis (in peri- and postmenopausal women) (in later life).

✧ Helps in the development and maintenance of bones and teeth  

 

Dietary Information

Foods Containing Calcium

         Source Serving Amount
         Buttermilk                                    250mL (1c) 370mg
         Milk                                       250mL (1c) ~300mg*
         Cheese 50g (1.5oz) ~300mg*
         Yogurt 175g (0.75c) ~300mg
         Sardines, canned 75g (2.5oz) 290mg

*calcium content varies slightly between types.

Non-animal Foods Containing Calcium

         Source Serving Amount
         Soy beverage (calcium fortified) 250mL (1c) ~320mg
         Calcium set tofu 150g (0.75c) ~240mg*
         Collards, cooked 125mL (0.5c) 189mg
         Bok choy, cooked 180g (1c) 167mg
         Orange juice (calcium fortified) 125mL (0.5c) 155mg

*calcium content varies slightly between types.

Special thanks to Ingrid Verduyn, Registered Dietitian.


Research 

Calcium is an essential cation involved in the maintenance of good health. Involved in multiple pathways for normal cellular function in the body and especially notable in the systems of muscle contractility, heart, nervous system, blood coagulation pathways, and bone and teeth.

- Regulated by Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone

-Calcium, when combined with Vitamin D, is recognized as a factor in bone and dental health.

-Dietary calcium is preferred though supplementation demonstrates equal benefit [1] to bone density (though not to reduce fracture risk).

-The Canada Osteoporosis Guidelines [2] suggest daily Calcium in combination with Vitamin D.

※ More is not always better. Too much calcium can increase the risk of kidney stones, abdominal pain, and constipation in some. Higher calcium levels may also be associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in post menopausal women, supported by some analysis [3] and refuted by others [4]. Regardless, caution is warranted in high risk groups.

Pathways Calcium

Pathways' Calcium Citrate is a vegetarian based tablet (non-animal derived). 

This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80067593.

Pathways’ Calcium Citrate is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

Ingredients  Amount Per Serving
Calcium (Calcium Citrate) 300mg
Magnesium (Magnesium Oxide and Magnesium Aspartate) 150mg
Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) 5mcg (200IU)
Zinc (Zinc HVP Chelate) 7.5mg
Copper (Copper (II) HVP Chelate) 0.5mg
Manganese (Manganese (II) HVP Chelate) 2.5mg

Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Hyprolose, Vegetarian Grade Tablet Coating (Hypromellose, Calcium Carbonate, Hyprolose, Water), Croscarmellose Sodium, Magnesium Stearate (vegetable source), Silica, and Stearic Acid (vegetable source).


    Coenzyme Q10

    About Coenzyme Q10

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant that is necessary for cells to function properly. It is found in plants, bacteria, animals, and people. CoQ10 can be found in highest amounts in the heart, liver, kidneys, and pancreas. 

    Coenzyme Q10 is a factor in the maintenance of good health.

    ✧ Helps to maintain and/or support cardiovascular health.  

    ✧ Helps to reduce the frequency of migraine headaches and associated nausea and vomiting when taken as a prophylactic. 

    ✧ An antioxidant for the maintenance of good health.

    Consult a healthcare practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Consult a healthcare practitioner prior to use if you are taking blood pressure medication or blood thinners. Consult a healthcare practitioner if migraine frequency increases, and associated nausea and vomiting persist or worse.


    Dietary Information

    Food sources containing Coenzyme Q10

              Source Serving Amount
              Beef, fried 85g (3oz) 2.6mg
              Herring, marinated 85g (3oz) 2.3mg
              Chicken, fried 85g (3oz) 1.4mg
              Soybean oil 15ml (1tbsp) 1.3mg
              Canola oil 15ml (1tbsp) 1.0mg
     

    Research

    Coenzyme Q 10 is a fat soluble cofactor involved in the pathway or cellular energy production. It serves an antioxidant, meaning that it accepts the free electrons that might otherwise cause damage to the cell. Coenzyme Q 10 is naturally occurring but low states can occur through consumption or impaired production.

    - Can reduce risk for Heart failure [1][2][3][4] but more studies are required to increase power of findings and agreed upon end points of improvement.

    - Involved in oxidative stress contributing to Cardiac health [5][6][7][8].

    Research continues and more randomized control studies are required to make universal conclusions. Some studies support a role in:

    - Blood pressure management [9][10][11][12][13].

    - Migraine prevention [14][15].

    - Exercise performance [16][17][18].

    Pathways Coenzyme Q10

    This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80063356.

    Pathways’ CoQ10 is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

    Ingredients Amount Per Serving
    Coenzyme Q10 (Ubidecarenone) 100mg
    Vitamin E (mixed tocopherols) 30IU (20.1 mg)

    Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Rice Bran Oil, Softgel Capsule (gelatin, glycerin, water, carob), and Beeswax.


    Cranberry Extract

    About Cranberry Extract

    Cranberries are the fruit of a native plant of North America. These red berries are used in foods and in herbal products, benefitting from a class of chemicals called Proanthocyanidins. The berries are used to produce beverages and many other food products, as well as dietary supplements in the form of extracts, capsules, or tablets.

    ✧ (Traditionally) used in Herbal Medicine to help prevent (recurrent) urinary tract infections (UTIs). 

    ✧ (Used in Herbal Medicine to) help(s) prevent recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women .

    ✧ Provides antioxidants for the maintenance of good health. 

    Risk Information: Consult a healthcare practitioner prior to use if you have a history of kidney stones, are taking blood thinners and if symptoms persist or worsen.

    Dietary Information

    Proanthocyanidins, a class of polyphenols found in Cranberries, can be found in low concentrations in a variety of plants, most notably; Apples, Cinnamon, Cocoa Beans, and Grapes (seeds and skin).


    Research

    Active agents within the Cranberries (Proanthocyanidins) have been shown to reduce adhesion of bacteria in the urinary tract [1][2]. Both cranberry juice and supplement extracts have been demonstrated to reduced bacterial adhesion to the bladder wall and urinary tract [3][4][5] but extracts can consistently deliver higher doses of active agent and and demonstrate higher compliance rates than daily juice products [6]

    - Cranberry extracts may reduce of frequency of Urinary Tract Infections [7] (UTI), especially in more susceptible groups including women, children, and women with recurrent UTI [8][9].

    - Some studies have also demonstrated a reduction of UTI’s in Elderly populations, especially those with a history or recurrent UTI [10][11].

    Pathways Cranberry Extract

    Pathways Cranberry Extract is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80064610.

    Pathways’ Cranberry Extract is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

    Ingredients Amount
    Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) (Fruit)(Standardized to contain 1.5% proanthocyanidins) 333.33mg
    Uva-Ursi (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) (Leaf) 100mg
    Grape Seed Extraxt (Vitis vinifera) (Seed) (85% Oligomeric proanthocyanidins) 15mg

    Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Veg Capsule (hypromellose, water), Silica, Magnesium Stearate, Cellulose.

     


    Flush-Free Niacin

    About

    Niacin, also known as Vitamin B3, is a colourless, water-soluble solid B-class vitamin. Derived from pyridine and its carboxyl group. Our version on Niacin is produce to has a n-flush effect, which is commonly associated with taking Niacin.

    ✧ Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

    ✧ Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

    ✧ Helps the body to metabolize fats. 

    ✧ Helps normal growth and development.

    Risk Information: Do not use if you are pregnant and/or breastfeeding. Do not exceed the recommended dose except on the advice of a physician. People sensitive to nicotinic acid may experience flushing of the skin that is generally mild and transient.

    Dietary

         Vitamin B3: Source Serving Amount 
         Yeast Extract Spread (marmite, vegemite)              30ml (2tbsp) 38NE
         Anchovies, canned 75g (2.5oz) 19NE
         Tuna, cooked or canned 75g (2.5oz) 12-18NE
         Liver (beef, pork, chicken, turkey), cooked 75g (2.5oz) 10-17NE
         Mushrooms, portabello 125ml (0.5cup) 6NE

    Research

    Vitamin B3, also known as Niacin, or Nicotinic Acid is an essential water soluble vitamin for the maintenance of health. Deficiency, though unlikely unless malnourished from food access or alcoholism, causes Pallagra, which causes Gastrointestinal, Skin, and Neurologic symptoms.

    Vitamin B3 is involved as a precursor for coenzymes in the pathway of energy metabolism, to convert carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to glucose, which is cellular fuel. It is also involved in pathways of DNA repair, Neurotransmitter production, and antioxidant functions.

    - Niacin also functions in the pathways of lipids metabolism and lowers CholesterolLow Density Lipoprotein and Triglycerides, and increases High Density Lipoprotein [1] while improving endothelial function (cells that line blood vessels) [2].

    - Supplemental B3 at 500mg is likely to cause flushing, a tingly, burning sensation of the skin which may be associated with redness   [3] , and can be reduced or prevented with aspirin [4], dosing with meals, or at bedtime [5].

    - It was traditionally held that the addition of Niacin benefitted those already on Cholesterol lowering drugs, Statins [6][7].

    - Newer evidence supports that extended release Niacin does to provide additional benefit to high risk patients on a Statin [8][9] and further, may increase the risk of Myopathy (increased muscle inflammation and pain) [10] which is already a risk for Statins.

    - Niacin may still benefit at risk cardiac populations who are unable or unwilling to take Statins or other Cholesterol lowering agents [11].

    - May contribute to risk reduction of cataracts in the elderly [12].

    Pathways Niacin

    This product was design to reduce all flush commonly associated with taking niacin.

    This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80071886.

    Pathways’ Flush-free Niacin is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

     Ingredients Amount
    Niacin (from 640 mg of Inositol Hexanicotinate)
    500mg
    Inositol (from 640 mg of Inositol Hexanicotinate)
    135mg

    Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Capsule (Hypromellose, Water), Stearic Acid (Vegetable Source), Magnesium Stearate (Vegetable Source), Rice Flour, Silica.


    Garlic Extract

    About

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is a popular vegetable with a variety of medicinal properties.

    ✧ Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine to help relieve the symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections and catarrhal conditions.

    ✧ Used in Herbal Medicine to help reduce elevated blood lipid levels/ hyperlipidaemia in adults.

    ✧ Used in Herbal Medicine to help maintain cardiovascular health in adults.

    Risk Information: Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, have diabetes, have stomach ulcers or inflammation, are taking blood thinners, blood pressure medication, protease inhibitors, or cardiac glycosides such as digitalis/digoxin. Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen. Hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy) has been known to occur; in which case discontinue use.

    Dietary

    All of the beneficial components of garlic can best be sourced from garlic supplements and fresh garlic.

    Research

    There appears to be a reliable and significant reduction in circulating LDL cholesterol (“bad cholesterol”) in hypercholesterolemic persons with garlic supplementation and a reliably increase HDL cholesterol (“good cholesterol”)  in persons with cardiovascular disease risk. [1] [2]

    Garlic supplementation appears to reduce blood pressure, and the magnitude is quite respectable in persons with hypertension. [3] [4]

    The rate (frequency of occurring) of the common cold has twice been found to be reduced by 60-70% in persons who take garlic supplementation daily; this is associated with both allicin and the aged garlic extract, and requires higher doses (2.5g aged extract or 180mg allicin). [5] [6]

     

    Pathways Garlic Extract

    Pathways Garlic Extract has been developed to prevent garlic odor, a common side effect of taking garlic extracts.

    This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80071999.

    Pathways’ Garlic Extract is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

     Ingredients Amount

    Odorless Garlic (Allium Sativum) (Bulb)

    (Concentrated Extract from Whole Clove Garlic)

    50mg
    Hawthorn Extract (Crataegus Laevigata) (Leaf & Flower) (Std. to min 1.8% Vitexin)
    100mg
    (Vitexin (from Hawthorn Extract)
    1.800mg
    Hawthorn Berry (Crataegus Laevigata) (Fruit)
    250mg
    Cayenne Pepper (Capsicum Frutescens) (Fruit)
    100mg
    Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Capsule (Hypromellose, Water).

    Ginger Root

    About

    Ginger root or simply Ginger, is a herbaceous perennial which is widely used as a spice and in herbal medicine.

    ✧ Helps prevent nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, and/or seasickness.

    ✧ Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine to help relieve digestive upset/disturbances including lack of appetite, nausea, digestive spasms, indigestion, dyspepsia and flatulent colic (carminative).

    ✧ Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine as an expectorant and anti-tussive to help relieve bronchitis as well as coughs and colds.

    Risk Information: Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms worsen.

    Dietary

    Ginger's active constituents primarily consist of zingerone, shogaols and gingerols.

    Research

    There appears to be a reliable and fairly notable decrease in nausea symptoms with 1-3g of ginger related to pregnancy and seasickness [1][2]

    For more information on dietary supplements, we recommend visiting http://www.mayoclinic.org/

    Pathways Ginger Root

    This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80071560.

    Pathways’ Ginger Root is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

     Ingredients  Amount Per Serving
    Ginger Root (Zingiber Officinale)
    550mg

    Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Gelatin (capsule), Magnesium Stearate, Silica.


    Ginkgo Biloba

    About Ginkgo Biloba

    Ginkgo Biloba, known as ginkgo or as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division of Ginkgophytas, all others being extinct. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated and has various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food.

    Ginkgo improves blood flow to the brain and acts as an antioxidant. These effects may translate into some benefits for certain medical problems including dementia and anxiety. In studies, Ginkgo Biloba has been reported to demonstrate improvements of platelet and nerve cell functions. It has also been reported to reduce blood viscosity.

    No matter why you're using Ginkgo, experts suggest starting at a low dose (60 miligrams daily) and increasing gradually. Get advice from your doctor. Although Ginkgo is generally well tolerated, it should not be used by people with clotting disorders or taking blood thinners.

    Risk information: Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding or if you are taking medications for diabetes, high blood pressure, or seizures. Do not use if you are taking health products that affect blood coagulation (e.g. blood thinners, clotting factor supplements, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, fish oils, vitamin E) as this may increase the risk of spontaneous bleeding.

    Dietary Information

    The nut-like gametophytes from inside the Ginkgo tree's seeds are particularly esteemed in Asia, and are a traditional Chinese food. Ginkgo nuts are used in congee, and are often served at special occasions such as weddings and the Chinese New Year as part of the vegetarian dish called Buddha's delight.

    Research

    We are currently compiling research about this product, please check back later.

    Pathways Ginkgo Biloba

    This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80066417.

    Pathways’ Ginkgo Biloba is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

    Ingredients Amount
    Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract (G. biloba L.) (50:1) (Standardized to Contain 24% Ginkgoflavonglycosides & 6% Terpene Lactones) 60mg
    Ginkgo Biloba (G. biloba L.) (Leaf) 200mg

    Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Capsule (vegetable polysaccharide pullalan), magnesium stearate.

     


    Glucosamine & Chondroitin

    About Glucosamine & Chondroitin 

    Glucosamine and chondroitin are natural substances found in and around the cells of cartilage. Glucosamine is an amino sugar that the body produces and distributes in cartilage and other connective tissue, and chondroitin is a complex carbohydrate that helps cartilage retain water.

    ✧ Helps to relieve joint pain associated with osteoarthritis.

    ✧ Helps to relieve pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    ✧ Helps to protect against the deterioration of cartilage.

    ✧ A factor in maintaining good cartilage and/or joint health.

    Risk information: Consult a healthcare practitioner if symptoms persist or if you are pregnant or breastfeeding

    Dietary Information

    Chondroitin can come from natural sources, such as cartilage, or it can be made synthetically in a lab. Glucosamine is an amino sugar and one of the most abundant monosaccharides.

    Research

    Glucosamine and Chondroitin are naturally occurring chemicals in the body. They are building blocks in the pathway for cartilage generation, and contribute to the elasticity and compression resistance in joint cartilage, known as articular cartilage.

    More recent human studies of sample sizes and longer duration support its potential role in adjuvant management of OA (Osteoarthritis) and as a factor in joint health. It’s low side effect profile and promising recent evidence in human trials have made it a popular supplement.

    Recent studies, of higher quality than older and weaker studies, suggest that regular, long-term use of combined Glucosamine and Chondroitin supports:

    - Reduced progression of Osteoarthritis [1][2][3].
    - Reduced Pain from Osteoarthritis in the knee [4][5][6][7].

      Pathways Glucosamine & Chondroitin

      Pathways Glucosamine & Chondroitin is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80063364.

      Pathways’ Glucosamine & Chondroitin is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

      Ingredients Amount
      Glucosamine Sulfate (Glucosamine Sulfate Potassium Chloride from shellfish exoskeleton) 750mg
      Chondroitin Sulfate (Cattle [Bos spp.] cartilage) 600mg

      Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Cellulose, Stearic Acid, Magnesium Stearate, Silica, Tablet Coating (hypromellose, stearic acid, cellulose).


      Green Tea Extract

      About Green Tea Extract

      All types of tea (green, black, and oolong) are produced from the Camellia sinensis plant using different methods. Fresh leaves from the plant are steamed to produce green tea, which are usually brewed and drunk as a beverage. Green tea extracts can be taken in capsules and are sometimes used in skin products.

      ✧ Source of antioxidants for the maintenance of good health.

      ✧ To be used with a program of reduced intake of dietary calories and increased physical activity (if possible) to help in weight management.

      Risk Information: Consult a healthcare practitioner prior to use if you have a liver disorder or develop symptoms of liver trouble, are pregnant or breastfeeding or if you have an iron deficiency.

      Dietary Information

      Regular green tea is 99.9% water, and contains phytochemicals, such as polyphenols and caffeine. Polyphenols found in green tea include epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate, epicatechins and flavanols.


      Research

      Green Tea and extracts benefit from polyphenols, a group of chemicals representing up to 30% dry weight of the tea. Most abundant and important within Green tea are Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), Epigallocatechin, Gallocatechin and Epicatechin [1].

      - Green Tea demonstrates Antioxidant [2][3] benefits.

      - Regular, long-term consumption has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk and mortality [4][5][6][7].

      - Demonstrated to lowers blood pressure [8][9] , total Cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein [10] which are cardiac risk factors. Data is derived from meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Larger, and randomized control studies would benefit the strength of the evidence.

      - Some studies support Green Tea may reduced the risk of stroke [11][12][13] and larger studies are required to draw conclusions.

      - There is interesting research being done with Cancer signalling pathways [14] , Cancer cell apoptosis (cell death) [15], and various cancers including Lung Cancer [16], Cervical and Ovarian Cancer [17][18], Gastrointestinal cancers [19][20], and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia [21][22] but the evidence is inconsistent and larger studies are requires so no conclusions can be drawn about Green Tea’s ability to reduce cancer [23][24][25].

      - There are some small studies supporting Green Tea for enhancing or protecting cognition [26][27][28] but the the results are not consistent [29] and Caffeine may contribute to benefits.

        Pathways Green Tea Extract

        This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80063768.

        Pathways Green Tea Extract is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

        Ingredients Amount 
        Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid) 60mg
        Green Tea Extract (Leaf) (up to 32 mg of naturally occurring caffeine) (min. 40% Catechins) 400mg

        Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Cellulose (capsule) and Magnesium Stearate (vegetable source).


        Iron

        About Iron

        Iron is a mineral that is naturally present in many foods, added to some food products, and available as a dietary supplement. Iron is a vital component in Hemoglobin, which aids in the transport of oxygen throughout our body.

        Iron is a factor in the maintenance of good health.

        ✧ Helps to form red blood cells and helps in their proper function.

        ✧ Helps to prevent iron deficiency.

        ✧ Helps to prevent iron deficiency anaemia.

        Risk information: Some people may experience constipation, diarrhea and/or vomiting. Keep out of reach of children. There is enough iron in this package to seriously harm a child.

            Dietary Information

            Foods Containing Iron

                 Source Serving Amount
                 Liver (beef/pork) 75g (2.5oz) 4.9-13.4mg
                 Oysters, cooked
            75g (2.5oz)
            3.3-9.0mg
                 Moose/venison
            75g (2.5oz)
            2.5-3.8mg
                 Clams, canned
            75g (2.5oz)
            2.0mg
                 Beef, various cuts, cooked
            75g (2.5oz)
            1.4-3.3mg

            Non-animal Foods Containing Iron

                 Source Serving Amount
                 Soybeans, cooked 175mL (0.75c) 6.5mg
                 Cream of wheat, cooked       175mL (0.75c) 5.7-5.8mg
                 Oatmeal, instant, cooked      
            175mL (0.75c)
            4.5-6.6mg
                 Lentils, cooked
            175mL (0.75c)
            4.1-4.9mg
                 Tofu, cooked 150g (0.75c) 2.4-8.0mg

            Research

            Iron is a required nutrient in the pathway of Hemoglobin production for red blood cells and Myoglobin in muscle, which are responsible for carrying oxygen. A low red cell count is referred to as Anemia. Iron is also required as a cofactor in Enzymatic pathways of energy metabolism, DNA synthesis [1], steroid hormones, and neurotransmitter production, including dopamine and serotonin [2].

            - Supplementation with iron is associated with a reduced incidence of Anemia, an increase exercise performance [3], and decreased fatigue in women who menstruate [4].

            - There is good evidence for safety and benefit in pregnancy [5].

            - Iron supplementation can benefit those who have iron deficient anemia [6].

            ※ Iron should not be taken by those with risk for overload, such as those with genetic Hemochromatosis or Beta Thalassemia, nor is is recommended for those without risk for deficiency. Consult your health care provider.

            Pathways Iron

            This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80063358.

            Pathways’ Iron is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

            Ingredients Amount
            Iron (from Iron Bisglycinate) 18mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Rice Flour, Veg Cap (hypromellose, water), Magnesium Stearate (vegetable source), and Silica.


            L-Carnitine

            About L-Carnitine

            Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all cells of the body. Its name is derived from the Latin carnus or flesh, as the compound was isolated from meat.

            ✧ Aids in the muscle recovery process by reducing muscle tissue damage associated with a resistance training regimen

            ✧ Helps support muscle tissue repair in individuals involved in resistance training.

            ✧ Helps improve physical performance when used in conjunction with a training regimen.

            ✧ Helps delay fatigue during physical activity.

            ✧ Helps support fat metabolism.

            ✧ Helps support fat oxidation.

            Risk Information: Consult a healthcare practitioner prior to use if you have a liver disease, a kidney disease, or a seizure disorder or if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

            Dietary Information

            Food Containing L-Carnitine

                      Source Serving Amount
                      Beef steak, cooked 112g (4oz) 56-162mg
                      Ground beef, cooked 112g (4oz) 87-99mg
                      Milk, homogenized 250mL (1c) 8mg
                      Fish, cod, cooked 112g (4oz) 4-7mg
                      Ice cream 125mL (0.5c) 3mg
             

            Research

            L- Carnitine is an amino acid that is important for the transfer for long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, the cell’s furnace, for energy metabolism [1]. L-Carnitine also serves as an antioxidant [2][3]. Good evidence exists for supplementation deficiency states including people who take the medicine Valproic acid [4][5][6] , and those with renal failure on dialysis [7][8].

            - Supplementation may improve muscle recovery time after exercise resistance training [9][10][11][12].

            - Supplementation may increase muscle stores and enhance muscle performance in exercise resistance training [13].

            A growing body of evidence supports that supplementation may:

            - Improve outcomes of activity tolerance and pain in Claudication, peripheral vascular disease [14][15][16][17].

            - Improve outcomes in Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) [18][19][20].

            - Improve outcomes from Ventricular Arrhythmia, Angina, CHF, and re-infarction in people with an underlying cardiac history [21][22][23].

            Some studies suggest L-Carnitine may play a role in the following but the studies are small or results inconsistent:

            - May benefit insulin resistance in diabetes [24][25][26].

            - May reduce muscle wasting in chronic disease [27][28].

            - May reduce fatigue in the Elderly [29][30][31].

            - May reduce pain and fatigue in Fibromyalgia [32][33].

            - May benefit men with Erectile Dysfunction [34][35].

             

            Pathways L-Carnitine

            This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80063685.

            Pathways’ L-Carnitine is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

            Ingredients Amount 
            L-Carnitine (L-Carnitine Tartrate) 500mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Veg Capsule (hypromellose, water), Cellulose, Magnesium Stearate, Silica.


            Magnesium

            About Magnesium

            Magnesium, an abundant mineral in the body, is naturally present in many foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids and laxatives).

            Magnesium is a factor in the maintenance of good health.

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            ✧ Helps in the development and maintenance of bones.

            ✧ Helps in the development and maintenance of teeth.

            ✧ Helps in tissue formation.

            ✧ Helps to maintain proper muscle function.

            Risk Information: Some people may experience diarrhea

            Dietary Information

            Foods Containing Magnesium

                      Source Serving Amount
                      Salmon, chinook      75g (2.5oz) 92mg
                      Halibut, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 80mg
                      Mackerel, atlantic 75g (2.5oz) 73mg

            Non-animal Foods Containing Magnesium

                      Source Serving Amount
                      Pumpkin seeds, no shell 60mL (0.25c) 317mg
                      Brazil nuts 60mL (0.25c) 133mg
                      Black-eyed peas, cooked 125mL (0.5c) 121mg
                      Tempeh fermented soy 150g (0.75c) 116mg
                      Soybeans, cooked 175mL (0.75c) 109mg

            Special thanks to Ingrid Verduyn, Registered Dietitian.


            Research

            Magnesium is an mineral required for good health. It is an essential cation in neuromuscular function and cellular activities. Involved in the enzymatic pathways required for: Carbohydrate metabolism, Fat metabolism, Protein metabolism.

            - Involved in the development and maintenance of bones and teeth.

            - Involved in cellular replication and tissue formation.

            - Involved in proper muscle function.

            - As a sleep aid for Insomnia [1] but more evidence is required.

            - Involved in Cardiac function, with low levels causing cardiac dysfunction and rhythm disturbances [2]*.

            - Magnesium might reduce the risk of Cardiovascular disease [3] and further research is required.

            - There is growing evidence to support Magnesium for Migraines [4][5].

            ____________________________________________________________________________________

            [2]* Bringhurst FR DM, Krane SM, Kronenberg HM. Bone and Mineral Metabolism in Health and Disease. Longo DL FA, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, editors. Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012

            Pathways Magnesium

            Pathways Magnesium is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80063361.

            Our products are manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

            Ingredients Amount 
            Magnesium (as Magnesium Citrate) 200mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Cellulose, Tablet Coating (water, hypromellose, triacetin, titanium oxide, cellulose, stearic acid, dextrin, dextrose, soy lecithin, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium citrate), Stearic Acid, Croscarmellose Sodium and Magnesium Stearate.


            Men's Multivitamin

            About Pathways Men's Multivitamin

            The Pathways Men's Multivitamin provides a matrix of over 35 vitamins, extracts, minerals, and essential oils. Targeted to meet the specific nutritional requirements needed in men's health, we have developed this multivitamin to support muscle function, energy, immunity, and metabolism. Its comprehensive formula contains research-based nutrient potencies of Vitamin A-K, calcium, magnesium, zinc, extracts like saw palmetto, and other natural health products. 

             

             

             

             

            Risk Information: Do not use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding or if you have abnormal constrictions of the gastrointestinal tract, potential or existing intestinal blockage, atonic bowel, appendicitis, inflammatory colon disease (e.g. Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis), abdominal pain of unknown origin, undiagnosed rectal bleeding, severe dehydration with depleted water or electrolytes, hemorrhoids or diarrhoea. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use to exclude a diagnosis of prostate cancer, if you have a kidney disease or diabetes, if you have a history of non-melanoma skin cancer, if you have faecal impaction or symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or fever, or if you are taking blood thinners, blood pressure medication, cardiac medications (e.g. cardiac glycosides or antiarrhythmic medications), thiazide diuretics, corticosteroids, licorice root or other medications or health products which may aggravate electrolyte imbalance. Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsens. Reduce dose or discontinue use if you are experiencing abdominal pain, cramps, spasms and/or diarrhea. Skin rash resulting from exposure to sunlight has been known to occur in rare cases, if this occurs, discontinue use. Hypersensitivity, such as allergy, has been known to occur; in which case, discontinue use. If you are taking prescription medication, consult a healthcare practitioner prior to use as resveratrol may alter the effectiveness of these medications.

            Dietary Information

            Multivitamin supplements are a combination of vitamins and dietary minerals. Please see our ingredients section for additional information and nutritional facts.

            Research

            Multivitamins contain small amounts of a large number of vitamins and minerals. Evidence supports widespread micronutrient deficiencies in the US [1] despite fortification of food and education. High risk groups would be those that suffer from poor nutrition, either from poor intake (elderly, neglect, poverty, alcoholism, mental health) or those who consume high calorie, low nutrient diets. Additionally, those with higher demands from chronic disease, or lower absorption from Gastrointestinal disorders are also at risk.

            Historically, the state of research on multivitamins has been observational, and existing evidence could neither support conclusively for, nor against, the use of a multivitamin for prevention of chronic disease [2]. Many people read that as no harm, potential benefit. However, more recent evidence, from larger, randomized studies, suggests protective benefits. A recent study followed 14,641 male physicians for 11 years and randomly assigned groups to take a multivitamin, demonstrated a significant reduction in cancer incidence in men [3][4].

            Pathways Men's Multivitamin

            Pathways Men's Multivitamin is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80064439. 

            Our products are manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

            Ingredients Amount Per Serving
            Beta-Carotene 2250 mcg (3750 IU)
            Vitamin A (as all-trans Retinyl Palmitate) 378 mcg RAE (1250 IU)
            Vitamin C (from Calcium Ascorbate) 125 mg
            Vitamin D (as Ergocalciferol) 12.5 mcg (500 IU)
            Vitamin E (as d-alpha-Tocopheryl Succinate) 50.25 mg AT (75 IU)
            Vitamin K1 (as Phytonadione) 17.5 mcg
            Vitamin K2 (as Menaquinone) 22.5 mcg
            Thiamine (from Thiamine Hydrochloride) 12.5 mg
            Riboflavin 12.5 mg
            Niacin (from Nicotinic Acid) 2.5 mg
            Niacinamide 15 mg
            Vitamin B6 (from Pyridoxine HCl and Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate) 12.5 mg
            Folate (as Folic Acid) 200 mcg
            Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin) 125 mcg
            Biotin 150 mcg
            Pantothenic Acid (from Calcium d-Pantothenate) 25 mg
            Calcium (from Calcium Ascorbate and Calcium Citrate) 25.005 mg
            Iodine (from Potassium Iodide) 75 mcg
            Magnesium (from Magnesium Citrate) 12.5 mg
            Zinc (from Zinc Glycinate Chelate) 15 mg
            Selenium (from L-Selenomethionine) 100 mcg
            Copper (from Copper Glycinate Chelate) 250 mcg
            Manganese (from Manganese Glycinate Chelate) 1 mg
            Chromium (from Chromium Picolinate) 100 mcg
            Molybdenum (from Sodium Molybdate Dihydrate) 37.5 mcg
            Potassium (from Potassium Chloride) 12.5 mg
            Choline (from Choline Bitartrate) 12.5 mg
            Inositol 12.5 mg
            Lutein (Tagetes erecta extract) 250 mcg
            Coenzyme Q10 (as Ubidecarenone)(Yeast Fermentation) 7.5 mg
            Lycopene (Lycopersicon esculentum) (Tomato Fruit) 1.5 mg
            ALA (dl-alpha Lipoic Acid) 25 mg
            Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) (Dried Berries) 80 mg
            Grape Seed (40:1 extract of Vitis vinifera) (Seed) 12.5 mg
            Aloe Vera (freeze dried inner leaf) 25 mg
            Resveratrol (from Reynoutria japonica) (Root)  5 mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Cellulose, Stearic Acid (vegetable source), Croscarmellose Sodium, Silica and Tablet Coating (hypromellose, cellulose, stearic acid).


            N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

            About

            Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine or NAC, is a biologically inactive compound that is metabolized in the body to produce L-cysteine, a precursor to the biologic antioxidant glutathione. Therefore supplementation of N-acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores and aids in preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides,lipid peroxides and heavy metals

            ✧ Provides antioxidants.

            Risk Information: If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, or have kidney stones, consult a health care practitioner prior to use. If you are taking antibiotics, or nitroglycerin, do not use this product.

            Dietary

            NAC is not found naturally in food sources; however cysteine is present in most high protein foods, therefore NAC is best provided through supplements.

            Research

            We are currently compiling research on this product, please check back later.

            For more information on dietary supplements, we recommend visiting http://www.mayoclinic.org

            Pathways N-acetylcysteine 

            This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80072003.

            Pathways’ NAC is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

             Ingredients Amount
            N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC)
            600mg
            Molybdenum (as Sodium Molybdate)
            50mcg
            Selenium (as L-Selenomethionine)
            25mcg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Capsule (Hypromellose, Water), Stearic Acid, Citric Acid.


            Omega 3

            About Omega 3 Fish Oil

            Omega-3 fatty acids are a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of functions in the body. Some kinds of omega-3s, including EPA and DHA, are found in fatty fish—such as salmon, tuna, and trout—and shellfish—such as crab, mussels, and oysters. A different type of omega-3, called ALA, is found in some vegetable oils—such as canola and soy oils. Omega-3s are also available as dietary supplements.

            ✧ Source of omega-3 fatty acids for the maintenance of good health.

            ✧ Source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the maintenance of good health.

            ✧ Helps maintain/support cardiovascular health.

            ✧ Helps support cognitive health and/or brain function.

            ✧ Helps support the development of the brain, eyes and nerves in children up to 12 years of age.

            Risk Information: If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, consult a health care practitioner prior to use.

            Dietary Information

            Foods Containing Omega Fatty Acids

                 Source Serving DHA/EPA ALA
                 Herring, cooked                75g (2.5oz)    1.6g 0.05-0.11
                 Anchovies, canned in oil 75g (2.5oz) 1.54g 0.01
                 Salmon, wild, atlantic 75g (2.5oz) 1.08-1.38g 0.22-0.28
                 Sardines, canned 75g (2.5oz) 0.74-1.05g 0.17-0.37
                 Omega 3 eggs 2 each 0.16-0.27g 0.50-0.54

            Non-animal Foods Containing Omega Fatty Acids

                  Source Serving           ALA
                 Flaxseed, ground         15mL (1tbsp)          2.46
                 Walnuts, English 60mL (0.25c)      2.30
                 Chia seeds 15mL (1tbsp)      1.90
                 Soybeans, cooked 175mL (0.75c)      0.76
                 Flaxseed oil 5mL (1tsp)      2.58

            Special thanks to Ingrid Verduyn, Registered Dietitian.

            Research

            Omega 3 is best sourced from fish oils as a source of long chain fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and most research has focussed on these long chain acids. Vegetarian sourced Omega contains short chain fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which itself is of benefit, though lesser documented benefit than DHA and EPA. However, the body can convert part of its ALA supply into DHA and EPA.

            As per Health Canada [1], EPA/DHA is recognized, dose dependant, to:

            - Help maintain and support Cardiovascular health.

            - Help reduce Triglycerides.

            - Help reduce the pain of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

            - Helps support cognitive health and brain function.

            - Helps support the development of brain, eyes, and the nervous system in children up to 12 yrs of age.

            - Helps to promote healthy mood balance.

            - EPA/DHA supports Cardiovascular disease risk reduction [2][3][4][5]. 

            Omega oil has seen an increase in research in recent years. Further randomized control studies are required before drawing universal conclusions, but EPA/DHA may be helpful in:

            - Helping to lower Blood pressure [6][7][8].

            - Promoting Neural protection [9].

            - Reducing Depression [10][11].

            - Improving Sleep quality [12].

            - Promoting Elderly cognition [13].

            - Reducing inflammation of Asthma [14][15].

            - Reducing Menstrual pain [16][17].

            - Reduced Premenstrual symptoms [18].

            - Helping to reduce Acne inflammation [19][20].

            - Reduced pain of Arthritis [21][22].

            - Improving Dermatitis [23] and Hair health [24].

            - Improved exercise muscle recovery [25].

            Pathways Omega 3

            Pathways Omega 3 is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80064439.

            Our products are manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

                 Ingredients Amount
                 Fish Oil (Whole Sardine, Anchovy, Mackerel Body Oil) 500mg
                 Total Omega-3 Fatty Acids 300mg
                 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) 180mg
                 Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) 120mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Softgel (gelatin, glycerin, water), and Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol).


            Oregano

            About

            Oregano is a common perennial herb closely related to the herb Marjoram, and a member of the mint family. Oregano benefits from containing polyphenols and numerous flavones, including carvacrol and thymol. 

             

            Risk Information: Consult a health care practitioner if pregnant or breastfeeding, taking medication, or have a medical condition.

            Dietary

            Oregano is best sourced as an essential oil and as dry leaves. Over 60 different compounds have been identified, with the primary ones being carvacrol and thymol ranging to over 80%, while lesser abundant compounds include p-cymene, γ-terpinenecaryophyllene, spathulenol, germacrene-D, β-fenchyl alcohol and δ-terpineol.

            Research

            The antibacterial properties of oregano oil suggest it is effective at warding off infection and boosting the human immune system, but human evidence for these effects is lacking.

            For more information on dietary supplements, we recommend visiting http://www.mayoclinic.org/

            Pathways Oregano

            This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80071573.

            Pathways’ Oregano is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

             Ingredients Amount
            Oregano Herb (Origanum Vulgare) (Leaf)
            450mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Capsule (Hypromellose, Water), Silica, Stearic Acid (Vegetable Source).


            Silymarin Extract

            About Silymarin Extract

            Milk thistle is a flowering herb native to the Mediterranean region. It has been used for thousands of years in natural medicine as a remedy for a variety of ailments. Silymarin, which can be extracted from the seeds (fruit) of the milk thistle plant, is believed to be the biologically active part of the herb. The seeds are used to prepare capsules, extracts, powders, and tinctures.

            ✧ (Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine as a) hepatoprotectant/ liver protectant.

            ✧ (Used in Herbal Medicine to) help(s) to support liver function.

            ✧ Used in Herbal Medicine to help relieve digestive disturbances.

            Risk Information: Consult a healthcare practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant, have gallstones, bile duct obstruction, stomach ulcers, or excess stomach acid. Consult a healthcare practitioner if symptoms persist or worse. Hypersensitivity, such as allergy, has been known to occur, in which case, discontinue use.

            Dietary Information 

            Silymarin is derived from extracts of the Silybum plant, also known as Milk Thistle. A standardized extract of milk thistle seeds contains a mixture of natural phenols called flavonolignans, the major active constituent of silymarin.

            Research

            Silymarin, derived from Milk Thistle, and has been used for centuries in traditional medicine with reported benefits for liver and gall bladder illness. Not all claims have been supported by science, but Silymarin does appear to act as an Antioxidant [1][2] with cellular protective benefits.

            - There is some evidence to support Silymarin may be protective for the Liver [3][4] and in certain liver diseases [5][6] including Fatty Liver [7].

            May also be hepatoprotective against potentially hepatotoxic medications [8]. However, evidence is lacking for Silymarin in the role of infectious hepatitis, where not benefits have been confirmed [9][10][11].

            - Some studies demonstrate possible benefits for Diabetes outcomes [12][13][14] and kidney damage (nephropathy) from Diabetes [15] but more, and larger, studies are required.

            Research is exploring if Silymarin may reduce the risk of different types of cancers, but studies are too small and conclusions cannot be drawn [16][17][18][19][20] so more studies are required. 

            Pathways' Silymarin

            Pathways' Silymarin is a vegetarian/vegan formula.

            This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80068331.

            Pathways’ Silymarin is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

             Ingredients Amount
            Turmeric (Curcuma longa) (Rhizome) 350mg
            Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) (Fruit & Seed)

            150mg (extract standardized to contain 120mg Silymarin)

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Veg Capsules (hypromellose, water), White Rice Flour, Magnesium Stearate (vegetable source).


            Ultra Omega-3

            About Omega 3 Fish Oil

            Omega-3 fatty acids are a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of functions in the body. Some kinds of omega-3s, including EPA and DHA, are found in fatty fish—such as salmon, tuna, and trout—and shellfish—such as crab, mussels, and oysters. A different type of omega-3, called ALA, is found in some vegetable oils—such as canola and soy oils. Omega-3s are also available as dietary supplements.

            ✧ Source of omega-3 fatty acids for the maintenance of good health.

            ✧ Source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the maintenance of good health.

            ✧ Helps maintain/support cardiovascular health.

            ✧ Helps support cognitive health and/or brain function.

            ✧ Helps support the development of the brain, eyes and nerves in children up to 12 years of age.

            Dietary Information

            Foods Containing Omega Fatty Acids

                 Source Serving DHA/EPA ALA
                 Herring, cooked                75g (2.5oz)    1.6g 0.05-0.11
                 Anchovies, canned in oil 75g (2.5oz) 1.54g 0.01
                 Salmon, wild, atlantic 75g (2.5oz) 1.08-1.38g 0.22-0.28
                 Sardines, canned 75g (2.5oz) 0.74-1.05g 0.17-0.37
                 Omega 3 eggs 2 each 0.16-0.27g 0.50-0.54

            Non-animal Foods Containing Omega Fatty Acids

                  Source Serving           ALA
                 Flaxseed, ground         15mL (1tbsp)          2.46
                 Walnuts, English 60mL (0.25c)      2.30
                 Chia seeds 15mL (1tbsp)      1.90
                 Soybeans, cooked 175mL (0.75c)      0.76
                 Flaxseed oil 5mL (1tsp)      2.58

            Special thanks to Ingrid Verduyn, Registered Dietitian.

            Research

            Omega 3 is best sourced from fish oils as a source of long chain fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and most research has focussed on these long chain acids.

            Omega 3 is best sourced from fish oils as a source of long chain fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and most research has focussed on these long chain acids. Vegetarian sourced Omega contains short chain fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which itself is of benefit, though lesser documented benefit than DHA and EPA. However, the body can convert part of its ALA supply into DHA and EPA.

            As per Health Canada [1], EPA/DHA is recognized, dose dependant, to:

            - Help maintain and support Cardiovascular health.

            - Help reduce Triglycerides.

            - Help reduce the pain of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

            - Helps support cognitive health and brain function.

            - Helps support the development of brain, eyes, and the nervous system in children up to 12 yrs of age.

            - Helps to promote healthy mood balance.

            - EPA/DHA supports Cardiovascular disease risk reduction [2][3][4][5]. 

            Omega oil has seen an increase in research in recent years. Further randomized control studies are required before drawing universal conclusions, but EPA/DHA may be helpful in:

            - Helping to lower Blood pressure [6][7][8].

            - Promoting Neural protection [9].

            - Reducing Depression [10][11].

            - Improving Sleep quality [12].

            - Promoting Elderly cognition [13].

            - Reducing inflammation of Asthma [14][15].

            - Reducing Menstrual pain [16][17].

            - Reduced Premenstrual symptoms [18].

            - Helping to reduce Acne inflammation [19][20].

            - Reduced pain of Arthritis [21][22].

            - Improving Dermatitis [23] and Hair health [24].

            - Improved exercise muscle recovery [25].

            Pathways Omega 3

            Pathways Omega 3 is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80064439.

            Our products are manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

                 Ingredients Amount Per Serving
                 Fish Oil (Whole Sardine, Anchovy, Mackerel Body Oil) 1000mg
                 Total Omega-3 Fatty Acids 750mg
                 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) 500mg
                 Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) 250mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Softgel (gelatin, glycerin, water), and Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol).


            Vitamin B12

            About Vitamin B12

            Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement and a prescription medication.

            Vitamin B12 is a factor in the maintenance of good health

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates. 

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize fats.  

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize proteins. 

            ✧ Helps to form red blood cells.  

            Dietary Information

            Food Containing Vitamin B12

                 Source Serving Amount
                 Clams, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 74.2mcg
                 Liver (beef, lamb, veal) 75g (2.5oz) 52.9-64.3mcg
                 Oysters, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 18.2-26.3mcg
                 Liver (chicken, pork) 75g (2.5oz) 12.6-15.9mcg
                 Pate (goose, chicken) 75g (2.5oz) 6.1-7.1mcg

            Special thanks to Ingrid Verduyn, Registered Dietitian.


            Research

            Vitamin B12 is an essential water soluble vitamin that is sourced from meats, fish and shellfish and dairy, basically anything that swims, walks or flies. B12 is necessary in the pathways for normal functions of all cells including DNA and RNA synthesis, energy metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, blood cell production, and the nervous system, including Myelin and Neurotransmitters. B12 is released from food in by the acids of the stomach, binds to Intrinsic Factor in the stomach, which permits absorption in the small intestine.

            Deficiency risk factors would include lack of consumption, lack of acidity or lack of absorption/Intrinsic factor, such as the following non-comprehensive list:

             -Vegans

             -Poor nutritional intake

             -Alcoholism

             -Acid reduced states in the stomach including medications that block acid [1]

             -Diabetics who take Metformin [2]

             -Elderly populations due a higher incidence of Atrophic Gastritis [3]which results in lower acidity and  Intrinsic Factor release. Additionally, some elderly experience reduced dietary intake or quality.

             -Crohn’s Colitis and Celiac Colitis which impair absorption in the small

             -Intestinal infection

             -History of stomach or Ileum (small intestine) surgical partial resection

             -Those who lack Intrinsic Factor, with resultant Pernicious Anemia 

            Deficiency results in a spectrum of symptoms [4] :

             -Megaloblastic Anemia (Red blood cells get big and count goes down)

             -Pancytopenia (lower count of platelets and white cells)

             -Neurologic symptoms including fatigue, weakness, tingling, sensory deficits,

             -Psychiatric symptoms including irritability, personality changes, depression, intestine, balance -problems, memory impairment and psychosis.

             -Skin symptoms including pigmentation changes, hair and nail changes, oral and tongue inflammation [5][6].

            - Regular, long term use of B12 may improve subjective well being in the Elderly [7] and reduce rates of depression in the Elderly [8] . Studies do not support short term use of B12 for depression, nor for all populations [9]

            - May contribute to risk reduction of Cataracts in the Elderly [10].

            Oral supplementation is preferred for deficiency states, unless there is a disorder of absorption (eg: Pernicious Anemia or Ileum resection) for which injection is preferred.

            Pathways' B12

            Pathways Vitamin B12 is vegetarian/vegan small berry flavoured chewable tablet (non-animal derived).

            This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80063352.

            Pathways’ Vitamin B12 is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

            Ingredients Amount
            Vitamin B12 (as Cyanocobalamin) 1000mcg
            Folate (as Folic Acid) 100mcg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Fructose, Cellulose, Sorbitol, Stearic Acid (vegetable source), Natural Strawberry Flavour, Natural Fruit Punch Flavour, Magnesium Stearate (vegetable source), Silica, Maltodextrin.


            Vitamin B2

            About

            Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is part of the vitamin B group. Riboflavin functions as a coenzyme, meaning that it is required for enzymes (proteins) to perform normal physiological actions.

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize fats  

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize proteins

            ✧ Helps in tissue formation

            Dietary

                 Vitamin B2: Source Serving Amount
                 Yeast extract spread (vegemite)                         30mL (2 tbsp) 5.3mg
                 Liver, all types, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 1.6-2.7mg
                 Corn flake cereal 30g 0.8mg
                 Mushrooms (white, portobello) 125mL (0.5c) 0.2-0.6mg
                 Milk, fluid 250mL 0.4-0.5mg 

            Research

            Riboflavin supplementation appears to be quite effective in reducing migraine frequency based on preliminary research. [1] [2]

            Pathways Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

            This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80071610.

            Pathways’ B50 Complex is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

            Ingredients Amount
            Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2) 500mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Capsule (Gelatin), Rice flour, Magnesium Stearate, Silica.


            Vitamin B50 Complex

            About B50 Complex

            B vitamins are a class of water soluble vitamins, which are categorized as either a cofactor, or a precursor of a cofactor. There are 8 different types of B vitamins; B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12. Each of these B vitamins have their own unique role but when combined they form a dietary supplement often referred to as a B50 Complex, this combination acts in complementary manner and serve various purposes and as a factor in the maintenance of good health. 

            Vitamin B1, Also known as Thiamine:

            Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

            Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

            Helps normal growth. 

            Vitamin B2, Also known as Riboflavin:

            Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

            Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

            Helps in tissue formation.

            Vitamin B3, Also known as Niacin:

            Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

            Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

            Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            Helps normal growth and development.

            Vitamin B5, Also known as Pantothenic Acid:

            Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

            Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

            Helps in tissue formation.

            Vitamin B6, Also known as Pyridoxine:

            Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

            Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

            Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            Helps in tissue formation. 

            Vitamin B7, Also known as Biotin:

            Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

            Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            Helps the body to metabolize proteins. 

            Vitamin B9, Also known as Folate:

            Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

            Helps to form red blood cells.

            Vitamin B12, Also known as Cyanocobalamin:

            Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

            Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

            Helps to form red blood cells.

            Risk Information: Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are taking sulfonamides. Hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy) has been known to occur with PABA; in which case, discontinue use.


            Dietary Information

            Foods Containing B Vitamins

            The following is a selection of foods rich in these B vitamins:

                Vitamin B1: Source Serving Amount
                 Yeast extract spread (vegemite)                       30mL (2tbsp) 3.56mg
                 Oatmeal, instant, cooked    175mL (0.75c) 0.72–1.1mg
                 Pork, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 0.36–1.05mg
                 Sunflower seeds, no shell 60mL (0.25c) 0.54mg
                 Wheat germ, raw 30g (0.25c) 0.50mg
             
                 Vitamin B2: Source Serving Amount
                 Yeast extract spread (vegemite)                         30mL (2 tbsp) 5.3mg
                 Liver, all types, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 1.6-2.7mg
                 Corn flake cereal 30g 0.8mg
                 Mushrooms (white, portobello) 125mL (0.5c) 0.2-0.6mg
                 Milk, fluid 250mL 0.4-0.5mg
             
                 Vitamin B3: Source Serving Amount 
                 Yeast Extract Spread (marmite, vegemite)              30ml (2tbsp) 38NE
                 Anchovies, canned 75g (2.5oz) 19NE
                 Tuna, cooked or canned 75g (2.5oz) 12-18NE
                 Liver (beef, pork, chicken, turkey), cooked 75g (2.5oz) 10-17NE
                 Mushrooms, portabello 125ml (0.5cup) 6NE
              
                Vitamin B6: Source Serving Amount
                 Meatless, fish sticks, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 1.13mg
                 Soy burger, vegetarian meatloaf, cooked
             bur75g (2.5oz)
            0.90mg
                 Liver (turkey, beef), cooked
            75g (2.5oz)
            0.76-0.78mg
                 Tuna, yellowfin/albacore, raw or cooked
            75g (2.5oz)
            0.68-0.78mg
                 Potato, with skin, cooked
            1 medium
            0.37-0.60mg
             
                 Vitamin B12: Source Serving Amount
                 Clams, cooked                                             75g (2.5oz) 74.2mcg
                 Liver (lamb, veal, beef), cooked           75g (2.5oz) 52.9-64.3mcg
                 Kidney, lamb cooked 75g (2.5oz) 59.2mcg
                 Crab, Alaska King, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 8.6mcg
                 Pate (goose liver, chicken liver) 75g (2.5oz) 6.1-7.1mcg
             
                 Folate: Source Serving Amount
                 Liver (turkey, chicken), cooked                            75g (2.5oz) 420-518mcg
                 Liver (lamb, veal), cooked                75g (2.5oz) 262-300mcg
                 Beans, cranberry/roman, cooked 175ml (0.75cup) 271mcg
                 Lentils, cooked 175ml (0.75cup) 265mcg
                 Edamame/baby soybeans, cooked 125ml (0.5cup) 106-255mcg

             Special thanks to Ingrid Verduyn, Registered Dietitian.

            Research

            Vitamin B3 data

            Vitamin B3, also known as Niacin, or Nicotinic Acid is an essential water soluble vitamin for the maintenance of health. Deficiency, though unlikely unless malnourished from food access or alcoholism, causes Pallagra, which causes Gastrointestinal, Skin, and Neurologic symptoms.

            Vitamin B3 is involved as a precursor for coenzymes in the pathway of energy metabolism, to convert carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to glucose, which is cellular fuel. It is also involved in pathways of DNA repair, Neurotransmitter production, and antioxidant functions.

            - Niacin also functions in the pathways of lipids metabolism and lowers CholesterolLow Density Lipoprotein and Triglycerides, and increases High Density Lipoprotein [1] while improving endothelial function (cells that line blood vessels) [2].

            - Supplemental B3 at 500mg is likely to cause flushing, a tingly, burning sensation of the skin which may be associated with redness   [3] , and can be reduced or prevented with aspirin [4], dosing with meals, or at bedtime [5].

            - It was traditionally held that the addition of Niacin benefitted those already on Cholesterol lowering drugs, Statins [6][7].

            - Newer evidence supports that extended release Niacin does to provide additional benefit to high risk patients on a Statin [8][9] and further, may increase the risk of Myopathy (increased muscle inflammation and pain) [10] which is already a risk for Statins.

            - Niacin may still benefit at risk cardiac populations who are unable or unwilling to take Statins or other Cholesterol lowering agents [11].

            - May contribute to risk reduction of cataracts in the elderly [12].

            Vitamin B6 data

            Vitamin B6, or Pyridoxine, is a water soluble vitamin

            - Functions as a cofactor for pathways involved in energy metabolism, Neurotransmitter synthesis [1], including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and GABA, and for normal development and maintenance of the Nervous System [2].

            - May reduce the symptoms associated with Premenstrual Syndrome [3][4].

            - Of benefit for those with genetic inborn errors of metabolism including sideroblastic anemia [5] and Pyridoxine deficient epilepsy [6].

            - Supplementation may benefit those at risk, including the malnourished, the Elderly [7][8].

            - Shown to lower Homocysteine [9], a cardiac risk factor, but did not translate to reduced cardiac events [10].

            - In the elderly, short term supplementation has not demonstrated benefit to cognition [11] but longer term supplementation in the elderly may result in less grey matter atrophy [12][13] which is associated with dementia.

            Vitamin B9 data

            Folate, or Vitamin B9, or derived Folic Acid is an essential water soluble vitamin sourced from dark vegetables, citrus, legumes, fortified grains, and some meats.

            - Folate is essential for the pathways [1][2] of RNA and DNA production.

            Deficiency risk factors include things which reduce consumption or absorption, and increased excretion or consumption of Folate. A non-comprehensive list would include:

            - Poor diet.

            - Alcoholism.

            - Over cooking foods as Folate is heat labile.

            - Small bowel disease including Celiac Disease, Crohn’s Colitis, and Infection.

            - Elderly populations with reduced absorption.

            - Medications including Dilantin [3], Trimethoprim [4], Methotrexate [5].

            - Pregnancy.

            - Hemolytic Anemia.

            - Immune response.

            - Smoking [6].

            - Low B12 status.

            Deficiency of Folate can result in a spectrum of symptoms including:

            - Megaloblastic Anemia.

            - Neurological symptoms [7] including fatigue, weakness, impaired memory.

            - Inflammation of the tongue and oral mucosa.

            - Gastrointestinal symptoms including Diarrhea.

            Folic acid supplementation is of benefit to reverse deficiency states including Megaloblastic Anemia (after B12, hypothyroid, and Liver disease are excluded).

            - Folic acid supplementation of 400 mg daily reduces Neural Tube Defects in pregnancy [8] depression.

            - Folic acid supplementation may reduce low birthweight in pregancy [9].

            - Long term supplementation may benefit depression [10] in the Elderly [11] certain at risk populations [12] but more studies are required.

            Can reduce Homocysteine levels [13] which have been hypothesized to contribute to chronic disease:

            - There is no good evidence for reduction of Cardiovascular events [14].

            - There is evidence to support long term supplementation to improve cognitive function of healthy elderly with elevated homocysteine levels [15] but there is not consistent evidence to support reduction for all dementia.

            - There is evidence for risk reduction of Stroke [16][17].  

            Vitamin B12 data

            Vitamin B12 is an essential water soluble vitamin that is sourced from meats, fish and shellfish and dairy, basically anything that swims, walks or flies.

            B12 is necessary in the pathways for normal functions of all cells including DNA and RNA synthesis, energy metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, blood cell production, and the nervous system, including Myelin and Neurotransmitters. B12 is released from food in by the acids of the stomach, binds to Intrinsic Factor in the stomach, which permits absorption in the small intestine.

            Deficiency risk factors would include lack of consumption, lack of acidity or lack of absorption/Intrinsic factor, such as the following non-comprehensive list:

            Vegans.

            Poor nutritional intake.

            Alcoholism.

            Acid reduced states in the stomach including medications that block acid [1].

            Diabetics who take Metformin [2].

            Elderly populations due a higher incidence of Atrophic Gastritis [3]which results in lower acidity and  Intrinsic Factor release. Additionally, some elderly experience reduced dietary intake or  quality.

            Poor nutritional status .

            Alcoholism.

             - Crohn’s Colitis and Celiac Colitis which impair absorption in the small.

            Intestinal infection.

            History of stomach or Ileum (small intestine) surgical partial resection.

            Those who lack Intrinsic Factor, with resultant Pernicious Anemia 

            Deficiency results in a spectrum of symptoms [4] : 

            Megaloblastic Anemia (Red blood cells get big and count goes down)

            Pancytopenia (lower count of platelets and white cells)

            Neurologic symptoms including fatigue, weakness, tingling, sensory deficits,

            Psychiatric symptoms including irritability, personality changes, depression, intestine, balance -problems, memory impairment and psychosis.

            Skin symptoms including pigmentation changes, hair and nail changes, oral and tongue inflammation [5][6].

            - Regular, long term use of B12 may improve subjective well being in the Elderly [7] and reduce rates of depression in the Elderly [8] . Studies do not support short term use of B12 for depression, nor for all populations [9]

            - May contribute to risk reduction of Cataracts in the Elderly [10]

            Oral supplementation is preferred for deficiency states, unless there is a disorder of absorption (eg: Pernicious Anemia or Ileum resection) for which injection is preferred.


            Pathways B50 Complex

            This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80063417.

            Pathways’ B50 Complex is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

            Ingredients Amount Per Serving
            Thiamine (from Thiamine HCl) (Vitamin B-1) 50mg
            Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2) 50mg
            Vitamin B-3 (as Niacinamide) 50mg
            Vitamin B-6 (from Pyrodixine HCl) 50mg
            Vitamin B-12 (as Cyanocobalamin) 50mcg
            Biotin 50mcg
            Folic Acid (Folate) 400mcg
            Pantothenic Acid (from Calcium Pantothenate) 50mg
            Choline Bitartrate (Choline) 25mg
            Inositol 25mg
            PABA (Para-Aminobenzoic acid) 25mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Veg Capsule (hypromellose, water), Cellulose, Silica and Magnesium Stearate (vegetable grade).


            Vitamin B6

            About Vitamin B6

            Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted within biological systems. Vitamin B6 is part of the Vitamin-B groups and serves as a coenzyme in its active form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate.

            Vitamin B6, Also known as Pyridoxine:

            Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

            Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

            Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            Helps in tissue formation. 

            Dietary Information

            Foods Containing Vitamin B6

                Source Serving Amount
                 Liver (beef, turkey), cooked 75g (2.5oz) 0.76-0.78mg
                 Tuna (yellowfin/albacore), cooked/raw 75g (2.5oz) 0.68-0.78mg
                 Salmon (wild, atlantic), cooked/raw 75g (2.5oz) 0.61-0.71mg
                 Liver (chicken), cooked 75g (2.5oz) 0.57-0.63mg
                 Venison, various cuts, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 0.46-0.57mg

             

            Non-animal Foods Containing Vitamin B6

                 Source Serving Amount
                 Chick peas, cooked                                    175mL (0.75c) 0.84mg
                 Potato, cooked, with skin 1 medium 0.37-0.60mg
                 Banana  1 medium 0.43mg
                 Durain 125mL (0.5c) 0.41mg
                 Pistachios, no shell 60mL (0.25c) 0.40mg

             Special thanks to Ingrid Verduyn, Registered Dietitian.

            Research

            Vitamin B6, or Pyridoxine, is a water soluble vitamin

            - Functions as a cofactor for pathways involved in energy metabolism, Neurotransmitter synthesis [1], including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and GABA, and for normal development and maintenance of the Nervous System [2].

            - May reduce the symptoms associated with Premenstrual Syndrome [3][4].

            - Of benefit for those with genetic inborn errors of metabolism including sideroblastic anemia [5] and Pyridoxine deficient epilepsy [6].

            - Supplementation may benefit those at risk, including the malnourished, the Elderly [7][8].

            - Shown to lower Homocysteine [9], a cardiac risk factor, but did not translate to reduced cardiac events [10].

            - In the elderly, short term supplementation has not demonstrated benefit to cognition [11] but longer term supplementation in the elderly may result in less grey matter atrophy [12][13] which is associated with dementia.

            Ingredients 

            This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80068382.

            Pathways’ Vitamin B6 is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

             Ingredients  Amount Per Serving
            Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine hydrochloride)
            100mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: White Rice Flour, Capsule (gelatin)


            Vitamin C

            About Vitamin C

            Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so it is an essential dietary component.

            Vitamin C is a factor in the maintenance of good health 

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize proteins.  

            ✧ Helps in the development and maintenance of bones. 

            ✧ Helps in the development and maintenance of cartilage.  

            ✧ Helps in the development and maintenance of teeth.

            ✧ Helps in the development and maintenance of gums.

            ✧ Helps in connective tissue formation. 

            ✧ Helps in wound healing. 

            ✧ An antioxidant for the maintenance of good health. 

            Risk Information: Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if pregnant or breastfeeding. If you are taking any prescription medication, consult a health care practitioner prior to use as citrus bioflavonoids may alter the effectiveness of these medications.

            Dietary Information

            Foods Containing Vitamin C

            Source Serving Amount
            Guava 1 medium 206mg
            Peppers, red/yellow, raw 125mL (0.5c) 101-144mg
            Papaya 1 half 94mg
            Kiwi 1 large 84mg
            Broccoli, cooked 250mL (1c) 54mg

             Special thanks to Ingrid Verduyn, Registered Dietitian. 


            Research

            Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin and it serves as an antioxidant. The body does not produce Vitamin C so it must be consumed in the diet and people living in Northern latitudes may be at greater risk of lower dietary intake [1].

            As an antioxidant, Vitamin C helps protect cells against free radicals and helps to restore Vitamin E’s antioxidant properties [2].

            Helps the body metabolize proteins [3] and fats [4].

            Helps the body produce neurotransmitters [5].

            Necessary for collagen formation so helps in the formation of cartilage, muscleblood vessels, connective tissue, bone, teeth and gums, and in wound healing.

            Improves absorption and uptake of Iron [6][7][8].

            Vitamin C has seen an increase in promising research in recent years. Further randomized control studies are required before drawing conclusions. These areas include Vitamin C’s role in:

            - Can reduce duration of the common cold, but only demonstrated to reduce incidence of the common cold in athletes [9][10][11].

            - May benefit endothelial function, a factor in Cardiovascular disease [12][13][14].

            - Demonstrated to lower Blood Pressure in some studies [15][16][17].

            - Contribute to improved outcomes in Critical care of Sepsis, BurnsPolytrauma [18][19][20].

            - May have a role in reducing Complex Regional Pain [21][22][23][24].

            - May protect against Macular Degeneration [25].

            - Has demonstrated reduce post exercise muscle soreness [26][27].

            - Long term use may reduce the risk of stroke [28].

            - May influence exercised induced bronchoconstriction [29][30].

            Asthma studies reveal mixed results and are too small so conclusions cannot be drawn [31].

            - May be of benefit in COPD [32][33][34].

            Smokers may have lower vitamin C [35][36], likely due to poor nutrition, and supplementation may offer protective benefits [37][38].

            - May benefit those with Anxiety [39].

            - May contribute to improved Depression management [40] but findings are not consistent [41].

            - Low vitamin C has been associated with Depression in the elderly [42].

            - Some studies suggest higher Vitamin C levels assist in prevention of certain types of Cancer [43][44][45] but it might also be interpreted that low Vitamin C, associated with a poor diet, is a risk factor for certain cancers as the risk appeared to correlate linearly. There is no good evidence to support its role in treating cancers [46]. More research is required.

            - When used topically, demonstrates improved skin quality for photoaging [47][48].

            Pathways Vitamin C

            This product is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80067597.

            Pathways’ Vitamin C is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

            Ingredients Amount 
            Vitamin C (from Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate) 1000mg
            Citrus Bioflavonoids (from Citrus limon, Citrus paradisi, Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantifolia and Citrus sinensis) (Fruit peel)
            100mg
            Rutin (from Styphnolobium japonicum flower bud)
            25mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Veg capsule (hypromellose, water), Stearic Acid (Vegetable source), Magnesium Stearate (vegetable source) and Silica.


            Vitamin D

            About Vitamin D

            Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in very few foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is also produced endogenously when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger vitamin D synthesis. 

            Vitamin D is a factor in the maintenance of good health.

            ✧ Helps in the development and maintenance of bones. 

            ✧ Helps in the development and maintenance of teeth.

            ✧ Helps in the absorption and use of calcium.

            ✧ Helps in the absorption and use of phosphorus.  

            ✧ Calcium intake, when combined with sufficient Vitamin D, a healthy diet and regular exercise may reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis.  

            Dietary Information

            Foods Containing Vitamin D3

                  Source Serving Amount
                 Salmon, canned/cooked/raw       75g (2.5oz) 530-699IU
                 Cod liver oil 5mL (1tsp) 427IU
                 Milk, fluid whole, 2% skin 250mL (1c) 103-105IU
                 Egg yolk 2 each 57-88IU
                 Yogurt, plain 75g (0.75c) 58-71IU


            Non-animal Foods Containing Vitamin D3

                  Source Serving Amount
                 Soy beverage, fortified 250mL (1c) 123IU
                 Rice or Almond beverage, fortified 250mL (1c) 88-90IU
                 Orange juice, fortified  125mL (0.5c) 50IU
                 Margarine 1tsp (5mL) 25IU
                 Portobello mushroom 128g (250mL) 16IU

            Special thanks to Ingrid Verduyn, Registered Dietitian.


            Research 

            Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin. The Vitamin D pathway requires sunshine to convert precursors to active Vitamin D3. Supplementation is beneficial as there is insufficient energy north of the 49th parallel between the Fall and Spring and Canadians are at higher risk of Vitamin D deficiency [1][2][3].

            ※ Dermatologists recommend avoiding the sun due to skin cancer risks of UVB radiation and taking a Vitamin D supplement.

            - Doses higher than those required to avoid deficiency have been demonstrated as safe and beneficial, though RDA’s remain conservative. Benefit appears to be dose-dependent and 1000-2000 IU daily are currently within ranges recommended by Osteoporosis Canada [4] and within Health Canada’s ranges [5] and other studies [6] .

            - Important for the maintenance of good health, the development of bones and teeth, and the regulation of Calcium and Phosphorus absorption.

            Vitamin D has seen an increase in promising research in recent years. Further randomized control studies are required before drawing conclusions. These areas include Vitamin D’s role in:

            Maintenance of Skin and Hair health [7][8][9].

            Psoriasis management and dermatitis [10][11][12][13].

            Reducing Inflammation [14][15].

            Enhancing viral Immunity [16][17][18].

            Asthma and COPD exacerbations [19][20].

            Muscle strength and recovery [21][22].

            - Arthritis control [23][24].

            - Urinary Tract Infection reduction [25][26].

            - Renal Disease [27][28].

            - Diabetes [29][30].

            - Depression risk reduction [31][32][33].

            - Cognition/Dementia risk [34][35][36].

            - Cancer risk reduction [37][38][39][40].

            - Cardiac Disease [41][42][43].

             

            Pathways Vitamin D

            Pathways Vitamin D is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80064210.

            Pathways’ Vitamin D is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

             Ingredients (Each Softgel Contains) Amount
            Vitamin D (from Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol))
            1,000 IU (25 mcg)

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Olive oil, Softgel (gelatin, glycerin, water) and Safflower Oil.

             


            Women's Multivitamin

            About Pathways Women's Multivitamin

            The Pathways Women's Multivitamin provides a matrix of over 35 vitamins, extracts, minerals, and essential oils. Targeted to meet the specific nutritional requirements needed in women's health, we have developed this multivitamin to support muscle function, energy, immunity, and metabolism.

             

             

             

             

             

            Risk Information: Do not use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Do not use if you have abnormal constrictions of the gastrointestinal tract, potential or existing intestinal blockage, atonic bowel, appendicitis, inflammatory colon disease (e.g. Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), abdominal pain of unknown origin, undiagnosed rectal bleeding, severe dehydration with depleted water or electrolytes, hemorrhoids or diarrhoea. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are taking blood thinners or blood pressure medication, cardiac medications (e.g. cardiac glycosides or antiarrhythmic medications), thiazide diuretics, corticosteroids, licorice root or other medications or health products which may aggravate electrolyte imbalance. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you have a history of kidney stones, if you have diabetes, a kidney disorder, or if you have faecal impaction or symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or fever. Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen. Hypersensitivity/allergy has been known to occur to acai or plants of the Arecaeae family; in such a case, discontinue use. Reduce dose or discontinue use if you experience abdominal pain, cramps, spasms and/or diarrhea. Keep out of reach of children. There is enough iron in this package to seriously harm a child.

            Dietary Information

            Multivitamin supplements are a combination of vitamins and dietary minerals. Please see our ingredients section for additional information and nutritional facts.

            Research

            Multivitamins contain small amounts of a large number of vitamins and minerals. Evidence supports widespread micronutrient deficiencies in the US [1] despite fortification of food and education. High risk groups would be those that suffer from poor nutrition, either from poor intake (elderly, neglect, poverty, alcoholism, mental health) or those who consume high calorie, low nutrient diets. Additionally, those with higher demands from chronic disease, or lower absorption from Gastrointestinal disorders are also at risk.

            Historically, the state of research on multivitamins has been observational, and existing evidence could neither support conclusively for, nor against, the use of a multivitamin for prevention of chronic disease [2]. Many people read that as no harm, potential benefit. However, more recent evidence, from larger, randomized studies, suggests protective benefits. A recent study followed 14,641 male physicians for 11 years and randomly assigned groups to take a multivitamin, demonstrated a significant reduction in cancer incidence in men [3][4].

            Pathways Women's Multivitamin

            Pathways Women's Multivitamin is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80064517

            Our products are manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.


            Ingredients Amount
            Beta-Carotene (as all-trans beta-carotene)
            2000 mcg RAE (3333 IU) 
            Vitamin C (from Calcium Ascorbate, Ascorbyl Palmitate)
            103.068 mg
            Vitamin D (as Ergocalciferol)
            8.325 mcg (333 IU)
            Vitamin E (as d-alpha-Tocopheryl Succinate)
            44.63 mg AT (66.667 IU)
            Vitamin K1 (as Phytonadione)
            11.667 mcg
            Vitamin K2 (as Menaquinone)
            15 mcg
            Thiamine (from Thiamine Hydrochloride)
            8.333 mg
            Riboflavin
            8.333 mg
            Niacin (from Nicotinic Acid)
            1.667 mg
            Niacinamide
            8.333 mg
            Vitamin B6 (from Pyridoxine HCl and Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate)
            8.333 mg
            Folate (as Folic Acid)
            266.667 mcg
            Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin)
            66.667 mcg
            Biotin
            100 mcg
            Pantothenic Acid (from Calcium d-Pantothenate)
            16.667 mcg
            Calcium (Calcium Ascorbate and Calcium Carbonate from Aquamin® TG Sea Minerals) 83.333 mg 
            Iodine (from Potassium Iodide)
            50 mcg
            Magnesium 
            (Magnesium Citrate and Magnesium Carbonate from Aquamin® TG Sea Minerals)
            33.333 mg  
            Zinc (from Zinc Bisglycinate Glycinate Chelate)
            5 mg
            Iron (from Ferrous Bisglycinate Chelate) 6 mg
            Selenium (from L-Selenomethionine) 66.667 mcg
            Copper (from Copper Bisglycinate Chelate) 333 mcg
            Manganese (from Manganese Bisglycinate Chelate) 0.867 mg
            Molybdenum (from Sodium Molybdate Dihydrate)
            25 mcg
            Potassium (from Potassium Chloride)
            8.333 mcg
            Chromium (from Chromium Picolinate) 40 mcg
            Choline (from Choline Bitartrate) 8.333 mg
            Inositol 8.333 mg
            Lutein (Tagetes erecta extract)
            166.667 mcg
            Coenzyme Q10 (as Ubidecarenone)(Yeast Fermentation) 10 mg
            Lycopene (Lycopersicon esculentum) (Tomato Fruit) 166.667 mcg
            ALA (dl-alpha Lipoic Acid) 10 mg
            Aloe Vera (freeze dried inner leaf)
            8.333 mg
            Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) (Fruit)
            33.333 mg
            Acai (Euterpe oleacea) (Fruit skin and pulp)
            16.667 mg
            Pomegranate Extract (Punica granatum) (Fruit) 
            (Standardized to contain 40% Punicalagins)
            16.667 mg 
            Mangosteen Extract (Garcinia mangostana)
            (Standardized to contain 10% Mangostin)
            16.667 mg 

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Cellulose, Stearic Acid (vegetable source), Croscarmellose Sodium, Silica and Tablet Coating (hypromellose, cellulose, stearic acid).


            Zinc

            About Zinc

            Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement.

            Zinc is a factor in the maintenance of good health.

            ✧ Helps in connective tissue formation.

            ✧ Helps to maintain healthy skin.

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates.

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize proteins.

            ✧ Helps the body to metabolize fats.

            ✧ Helps to maintain immune function.

            Dietary 

            Foods Containing Zinc

             Source Serving Amount
            Oysters, Eastern, wild, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 55.0-136.5mg
            Oysters, Pacific, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 24.9mg
            Liver, veal, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 8.4-8.9mg
            Beef, various cuts, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 4.0-8.6mg
            Crab, all varieties, cooked 75g (2.5oz) 2.5-5.7mg

             

            Non-animal Foods Containing Zinc

             Source Serving Amount
            Pumpkin or Squash seeds 60mL (0.25c) 2.7-4.4mg
            Baked beans, cooked 175mL (0.75c) 4.3mg
            Lentils, cooked 175mL (0.75c) 1.9mg
            Sunflower seeds, without shell 60mL (0.25c) 0.6-1.8mg
            Egg, cooked 2 large 1.2-1.3

            Research

            -Zinc is an essential element and supplementation is beneficial in deficiency states.

            -Zinc is involved in immune function  and can improved immune outcomes, especially in chronic disease 

            -Some studies support that Zinc can improve the resolution of warts 

            -There is evidence to support Zinc supplementation to reduce the duration of a cold upon onset  in both children and adults and to reduce incidence of colds in children  , but more studies are required using adults.

            -Zinc can be used as a complementary therapy in Acne₁₀ ₁₁

            -May play a role in exercise recovery ₁₂ ₁₃ ₁₄ but larger studies are required

            -Shown to improve outcomes in Wilson’s Disease ₁₅ of the liver and new evidence to support protective benefits in both non-Alcoholic cirrhosis ₁₆ and in Alcoholic liver disease ₁₇ ₁₈

            Pathways Zinc 

            Pathways Zinc is licensed with Health Canada’s Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate under the Natural Product Number (NPN) 80068387.

            Pathways’ Zinc is manufactured and tested under strict quality control standards, and packaged using pharmacy-grade technology.

             Ingredients (Each Tablet Contains)
            Zinc (as Zinc Gluconate) 50mg

            Non-Medicinal Ingredients: Cellulose, Tablet Coating (water, hypromellose, cellulose, stearic acid), Magnesium Stearate (vegetable source), Silica.


            Products

            Ready Packs

            Choose from a selection of ready to order daily packs, formulated with a specific health goal in mind.

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            Choose from a selection of vitamins, minerals, supplements, and omega oils to create your own pack.